A Simple defination of PUSCH hopping is Hopping in LTE Uplink.
Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH): is used to carry on the uplink user data. QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM are the modulation schemes supported on PUSCH. PUSCH is mapped to Physical resource blocks in different ways depending on whether uplink frequency hopping is 23 enabled or not. The mapping also differs for different types of hopping if uplink frequency hopping is enabled.Different techniques that provide uplink diversity can be used in cases where channel dependent scheduling is not suitable. Frequency hopping is one of the techniques that can be used to enhance diversity in the 3G LTE uplink. Hopping in frequency can be performed on PUSCH (Physical Uplink Shared Channel) – the channel on which the user data is transmitted. Thus frequency hopping in the uplink can be called PUSCH frequency hopping.
Download Master Thesis on Frequency Hopping in LTE from Here
Discontinuous Reception (DRX) and Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) used in LTE architecture for Power Saving.LTE architecture exploits the idea of Discontinuous Reception (DRX) and Discontinuous Transmission (DTX), to provide a concrete solution to the power saving.
Power save protocols in LTE architecture.
- Discontinuous Reception (DRX)
- Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
- Both reducing transceiver duty cycle while in active operation
- DRX also applies to the RRC_Idle state with a longer cycle time than active mode (more…)
The growth and demand for advanced and ubiquitous cellular services has steadily increased over the past years, and the rapid growth of Smartphone devices has exponentially accelerated this demand.
Smartphone penetration growth has introduced whole new trends in data applications.
Due to high demand of bandwidth over the time congestion increased in cellular networks.
In mass events congestion causing poor network performance and hence it will impact negative customer experiencs.
The senario particularly problemetic at Parades,Stadium or Any Temples.
At Mass event it is particularly shown high uplink usage because of instant sharing of Photo and Video.
The planning of these events must be especially careful, taking into account the uplink capacity and the control plane dimensioning. Network RF planning in large open areas creates further challenges in terms of inter-cell interference and good user balance between frequency layers. (more…)
Paging process in UMTS or HSDPA system is called UMTS Paging.
The Paging Channel (PCH) is a downlink transport channel. The PCH is always transmitted over the entire cell. The transmission of the PCH is associated with the transmission of physical-layer generated Paging Indicators, to support efficient sleep-mode procedures.
Paging Channel selection
System information block type 5 (SIB 5) defines common channels to be employed in Idle mode.The UE may use Discontinuous Reception (DRX) in idle mode in order to reduce power consumption. When DRX is used the UE needs only to monitor one Page Indicator, PI, in one Paging Occasion per DRX cycle.
The Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) is a fixed rate (SF=256) physical channel used to carry the paging indicators.
Basically two types of Paging Procedures in UMTS Paging.
1) Idle Mode Paging
2) Dedicated Mode Paging
In Idle mode paging is used when UE is in idle mode so we can say UE is in Cell PCH or URA PCH.PAGING TYPE 1 message on an appropriate paging occasion on the PCCH.
UE dedicated paging procedure is used to transmit dedicated paging information to one UE in connected mode in CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH state.PAGING TYPE 2 message on the DCCH using AM RLC.
If you have any suggestion on How to improve Paging Success Ratio than Please Comment.
What is Uplink CE Congestion?
Congestion in CE (Channel Element) in Uplink is calles Uplink CE Congestion.In 3G network mostly CE congestion observed in Uplink Direction.
What is CE(Channel Element)?
A band Channel Element is the resource base required in the Node-B to Provide for one voice channel capacity, including the control plane to Provide for one voice channel capacity, including the control plane signaling, compressed mode, the transmit diversity and softer handover. “signaling, compressed mode, the transmit diversity and softer handover.
CE(Channel Element Utilization)?
Its depend on Vendor to Vendor Ericsson,Huawei and NSN have different CE utilization ratio.
CE(Channel Element Utilization) in Ericsson System.
From Figure It clearly shows as compare to Downlink CE consumption is two times more.
Its main reason for Uplink CE Congestion in 3G.
Solutions for Uplink CE Congestion:
- Upgrade the CE license according to your vendor.
- R99 services uses more CE so try to reduce R99 services.There are several parametrs which can help R99 Service utlization optimization.
- Load Balacing between 2G and 3G or 3G and 4G can also help to reduce Uplink CE Congestion.
We can avoid CE Congestion in initial network planning by Proper Dimensioning.
You can get better Guide from Below link
CE(Channel Element) Dimensioning in Ericsson System
UMTS Channel Element Calculation
Why Channel Element Usage in UL is double that of DL